夫妻教师紧急抢救防止红歌失传 出版《沂蒙红歌集》
<p style="text-indent:24pt;" align="center"><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;"><img title="秦丕山、刘洁在采集红歌。" alt="秦丕山、刘洁在采集红歌。" src="http://www.people.com.cn/h/pic/20120814/17/7671323793079619393.jpg" /></span></p> <p style="text-indent:24pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">□</span><span style="font-size:12pt;"> </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">胡跃东</span><span style="font-size:12pt;"> </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">秦丕山</span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span>    </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">沂蒙山区是著名的革命老区</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">在根据地建设中</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">广大文艺工作者创作了大量的革命歌曲</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">并被广为传唱</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">但是随着时间的流逝</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">会唱红歌的人越来越少</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">很多红歌都已失传。</span><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span>    </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:small;"><span><span>    </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">为了让红歌能够继续传唱下去</span></span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">自</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">2009</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">年下半年开始</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">沂南县第二中学的音乐教师秦丕山、刘洁夫妇利用节假日自费搜集红歌</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">历时两年整理红歌</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">100</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">余首</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">出版了《沂蒙红歌集》。因为对红歌的痴迷</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">秦丕山的朋友给他一家三口都起了绰号</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">他叫“红哥”</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">妻子刘洁叫“红姐”</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">女儿</span><span style="font-size:12pt;"><a href="http://search.people.com.cn/rmw/GB/rmwsearch/gj_search_lj.jsp?keyword=秦筝" target="_blank"><span style="font-family:宋体;"><span><span style="color:#000000;">秦筝</span></span></span></a></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">叫“红孩儿”。</span></p> <p><b><span style="color:red;font-size:12pt;"><span>    </span></span></b><b><span style="font-family:宋体;color:red;font-size:12pt;">希望红歌能传唱下去</span></b></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span>    </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">沂南县砖埠镇孙家黄疃村的孙元吉老人自己整理了《历史民歌集》</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">他在扉页上写了这样一段话</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">“当时我会唱</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">200</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">多首红歌</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">这些歌是历史的、传统的、带有地方色彩的</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">是用革命烈士的鲜血换来的</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">带有民族阶级感情的歌曲。”孙元吉老人在自己头脑还清醒的时候</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">将自己还会唱的歌曲整理下来</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">希望这些歌能够传唱下去。</span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span>    </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">沂蒙山区是全国闻名的革命老区</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">这里是一片红色的沃土</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">是一片神奇的土地。在艰苦卓绝的抗日战争和解放战争时期</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">沂蒙人民在中国共产党的领导下</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">踊跃参军参战、拥军支前、不怕牺牲、前仆后继</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">用自己的血和汗为抗日战争和解放战争的胜利贡献了一份力量。</span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span>    </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">十万沂蒙儿女血洒疆场</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">可以说八百里沂蒙乡乡有红嫂</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">村村有烈士。与日本侵略者血战到底的“全国抗日楷模村”渊子崖</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">用乳汁救伤员的“沂蒙红嫂”</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">支前模范“</span><span style="font-size:12pt;"><a href="http://search.people.com.cn/rmw/GB/rmwsearch/gj_search_lj.jsp?keyword=沂蒙六姐妹" target="_blank"><span style="font-family:宋体;"><span><span style="color:#000000;">沂蒙六姐妹</span></span></span></a></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">”</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">“红嫂”明德英</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">“沂蒙母亲”王换于等一大批英雄人物至今让人动容。</span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span>    </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">那个年代</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">在沂蒙革命根据地的建设当中</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">广大文艺工作者</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">满怀革命豪情</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">一手拿枪</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">一手拿笔</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">深入战地和农村</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">创作了许多脍炙人口的革命歌曲。这些歌曲不仅丰富了群众的文化生活</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">更是动员和团结了广大群众</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">投入到轰轰烈烈的革命斗争之中。《跟着共产党走》、《沂蒙山小调》从这里唱响并</span><span style="font-size:12pt;"><a href="http://search.people.com.cn/rmw/GB/rmwsearch/gj_search_lj.jsp?keyword=传唱" target="_blank"><span style="font-family:宋体;"><span><span style="color:#000000;">传唱</span></span></span></a></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">全国。《孙祖战斗》、《打蒙阴城小调》等歌曲</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">在唱出根据地人民心声的同时</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">也吹响了根据地人民打败日本侵略者</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">夺取民族解放斗争胜利的号角。</span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span>    </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">红歌在那个年代是人们的精神食粮</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">更是代表着那代人的一种精神</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">红歌是他们出生入死的动力</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">也是老一辈革命先烈们为后人留下的精神财富。一支支红歌</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">讲述着一次次惊心动魄的战斗</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">述说着一个个、一群群令人景仰的英模人物</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">而这些人、这些事汇集起来</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">就是沂蒙山区那段时间的红色历史。</span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span>    </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">然而</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">随着时间的流逝</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">在战争年代创作和传唱于沂蒙山区的很多红歌却面临失传的危险。随着年龄的增长</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">会唱红歌的老人相继离世</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">许多在世的老人随着年纪越来越大</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">记忆逐渐模糊</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">很多歌曲已是记不全、记不准</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">如果不及时收集整理出来</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">这些红歌将会消失</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">抢救和挖掘红歌的工作</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">显得十分迫切。</span></p> <p><b><span style="color:red;font-size:12pt;"><span>    </span></span></b><b><span style="font-family:宋体;color:red;font-size:12pt;">与红歌结缘</span></b></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span>    </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">秦丕山与红歌结缘</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">缘于一个很偶然的机会。</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">2009</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">年下半年的一天</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">他到马牧池红色影视基地游玩</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">有位老大娘唱起一首歌</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">他从未听到过。秦丕山拉着大娘聊天</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">得知这是一首当年传唱在根据地的红歌</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">大娘已经</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">80</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">多岁了</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">年轻时会唱的红歌更多</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">现在很多都已经忘记了。这让秦丕山突然产生了一个念头</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">会唱这些红歌的老人越来越少</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">如果没人整理</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">这些红歌不就将面临失传的命运吗</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">?</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">“我是一名音乐教师</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">正好可以发挥这方面的专长</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">发掘整理红歌。”自此</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">秦丕山走上了整理红歌的道路。</span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span>    </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">“打着锣</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">敲着鼓</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">敲锣打鼓走街巷</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">不唱圆不唱方</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">单唱唱参军的好儿郎……”这是秦丕山整理的第一首红歌《歌唱参军好儿郎》。这首歌是秦丕山邻家婶子秦绪芹老人看到孙子参军时</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">想起抗战时男儿参军上战场的情景而唱的。</span></p> <p><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;"><img alt="" align="left" src="http://www.people.com.cn/h/pic/20120814/73/11523027164872294449.jpg" /></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span>    </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">秦丕山对红歌可以用痴迷来形容</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">从有了搜集整理红歌的念头后</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">他逢人便问哪里有会唱红歌的老人</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">不论是在与朋友还是学生的交流中</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">“有没有认识会唱红歌的人</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">?</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">”成了他必问的话。</span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span>    </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">一次</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">秦丕山来到一位老人家里</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">希望老人唱红歌给他听。老人得知他的来意后非常感动</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">他说</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">“我一直在等这样一个人</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">终于等来了</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">这些红歌都是沂蒙山的宝</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">不能丢。”</span></p> <p><span style="font-size:small;"><span><span>    </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">秦丕山整理红歌</span></span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">离不开妻子刘洁的大力支持。刘洁也是一名音乐教师</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">夫妻两人同在沂南二中教学。因为两人都带高三年级</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">平日里的工作就比较繁忙</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">一天的休息时间对夫妻二人来说都是一种奢望</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">而自从秦丕山开始整理红歌后</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">只要有时间</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">他就向外跑</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">冷落了妻女</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">突然有一天</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">秦丕山才发觉妻子生气了。</span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span>    </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">丈夫为了得到妻子的支持</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">就讲起了在整理红歌过程中遇到的一些事</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">:</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">有的老人年纪大了</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">躺在床上也要为他唱红歌</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">还有的老人唱到动情处潸然泪下……慢慢地妻子和丈夫一起踏上了整理红歌之路。</span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span>    </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">自从跟着父母外出搜集整理红歌</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,7</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">岁的女儿秦筝也爱上了唱红歌。“我俩在家里整理红歌时</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">女儿总是在旁边听</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">我们唱时她也跟着唱。”刘洁说</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">他们的女儿已经会唱很多红歌</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">而且还经常教班里的同学唱红歌。秦丕山开玩笑的说</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">:</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">“我女儿已经成为宣传红歌的一杆大旗了</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">不愧‘</span><span style="font-size:12pt;"><a href="http://search.people.com.cn/rmw/GB/rmwsearch/gj_search_lj.jsp?keyword=红孩儿" target="_blank"><span style="font-family:宋体;"><span><span style="color:#000000;">红孩儿</span></span></span></a></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">’这个名字。”</span></p> <p><b><span style="color:red;font-size:12pt;"><span>    </span></span></b><b><span style="font-family:宋体;color:red;font-size:12pt;">带声的历史</span></b></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span>    </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">在整理红歌的过程中</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">秦丕山发现很多红歌叙事性、故事性都很强</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">往往都是通过通俗易懂的歌词</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">来记录一个事件。在那个年代</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">广大文艺工作者满怀革命热情</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">一手拿枪</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">一手拿笔</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">深入战地和农村</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">创作了许多脍炙人口的革命歌曲</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">可以说是记录</span><span style="font-size:12pt;"><a href="http://search.people.com.cn/rmw/GB/rmwsearch/gj_search_lj.jsp?keyword=沂蒙山区" target="_blank"><span style="font-family:宋体;"><span><span style="color:#000000;">沂蒙山区</span></span></span></a></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">抗日故事的“活化石”。</span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span>    </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">通过对于红歌歌词进行梳理</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">秦丕山也给这些红歌进行了分类。“有的歌曲记录了当时的战斗</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">有的歌曲反映了当时的生产生活</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">有些歌曲是为了鼓励青年入伍参军</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">有些歌曲是为了歌颂英雄人物</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">还有些歌曲记述了当时支前的场景。”秦丕山告诉记者</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">每一首红歌都是一段历史</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">讲述着一个个感人的故事。</span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span>    </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">《打蒙阴城小调》是一首典型的反映战斗生活的歌曲。蒙阴城位于鲁中西南部</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">是日伪“</span><span style="font-size:12pt;"><a href="http://search.people.com.cn/rmw/GB/rmwsearch/gj_search_lj.jsp?keyword=扫荡" target="_blank"><span style="font-family:宋体;"><span><span style="color:#000000;">扫荡</span></span></span></a></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">”、“蚕食”我革命根据地的桥头堡</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">当年驻扎了一个日军小队和伪军唐云山部</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">12</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">个中队</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">是日寇对沂蒙山区人民实行“烧光、杀光、抢光”三光政策的重要据点。</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">1945</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">年</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">鲁中军区主力部队在地方武装的配合下</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">经过两天两夜的激战攻克了蒙阴城</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">摧毁了敌人对沂蒙山区“扫荡”的重要屯兵基地</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">极大地鼓舞了山东抗日军民大反攻的信心。抗日宣传队根据战斗情况</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">编写了《打蒙阴城小调》并传唱至今</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">表达了根据地居民对这次战斗的喜悦心情。</span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span>    </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">《坡里麦子黄了梢》这首歌记录了当时军民抢收麦子的情景</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">是反映当时根据地生产生活情况的代表作。</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">1942</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">年</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">6</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">月</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">日军为了到根据地抢即将收割的粮食</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">发动了麦季“扫荡”</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">临沂、葛沟、河阳的两千余名日伪军兵分</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">4</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">路入侵临沂周边县</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">并建立了司马、南黄埠、官庄、高里等据点</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">试图控制根据地的东西交通以及沂河两岸最富饶的产粮区</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">为了不使粮食落入敌手</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">抗日军民在根据地开展了抢收、抢割的大生产运动。这首歌鼓舞了军民抢收</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">表达了不让敌人抢走一颗粮的决心。</span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span>    </span>1939</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">年</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">一一五师东进山东</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">在沂蒙山区建立了敌后抗日根据地和民主政权</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">开辟敌后抗日战场。为了赢得抗日战争的胜利</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">沂蒙山区的老百姓作出了巨大牺牲。十数万青壮年参军参战</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">投身抗日战场</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">牺牲的烈士有数万余人。沂蒙山区的女性也作出了巨大的牺牲。她们母送儿、妻送郎、姊妹送兄弟</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">义无返顾地将自己的亲人送上抗日战场。当时创作了大量鼓励丈夫、兄弟参军的歌曲</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">如《送郎归队》、《豌豆花开》、《踊跃参军》等</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">至今还为人所传唱。</span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span>    </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">在抗战时期</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">沂蒙山区还涌现了一大批模范人物</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">如支前模范“沂蒙六姐妹”</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">“</span><span style="font-size:12pt;"><a href="http://search.people.com.cn/rmw/GB/rmwsearch/gj_search_lj.jsp?keyword=红嫂" target="_blank"><span style="font-family:宋体;"><span><span style="color:#000000;">红嫂</span></span></span></a></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">”明德英</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">“沂蒙母亲”王换于。同时</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">也产生了大量歌颂她们</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">向她们学习的歌曲。《歌唱于大娘》就是其中一首</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">歌颂的正是“沂蒙母亲”王换于。</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">1938</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">年</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">12</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">月</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">王换于加入中国共产党</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">徐向前、罗荣桓、朱瑞等党政军高级领导干部都曾在她家生活。当大众日报社干部白铁华被日本鬼子拷打身负重伤、奄奄一息时</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">是王换于大娘带领全家</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">用了半年多的时间</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">救活了他。此外</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">王换于还在徐向前的同意下</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">开设了一家幼儿园</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">照顾革命干部的孩子。像这种红歌还有《歌颂彭大娘》、《歌唱模范青年高洪安》等。</span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span>    </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">抗日战争和解放战争期间</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">沂蒙老区</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">420</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">万人口中</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">有</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">140</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">万群众参军支前。沂蒙人民与山东党政军一起</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">在沂蒙这块红色的热土上</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">共同创造了“爱党爱军、开拓奋进、艰苦创业、无私奉献”的</span><span style="font-size:12pt;"><a href="http://search.people.com.cn/rmw/GB/rmwsearch/gj_search_lj.jsp?keyword=沂蒙精神" target="_blank"><span style="font-family:宋体;"><span><span style="color:#000000;">沂蒙精神</span></span></span></a></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">。三年多的解放战争中</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">在“一切为了前线</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">一切为了战争胜利”的口号鼓舞下</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">沂蒙支前民工就达</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">1018523</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">人</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">支前小推车达到了</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">314279</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">辆</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">担架</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">60397</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">付。陈毅元帅曾经很形象地形容</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">:</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">“淮海战役是沂蒙老区人民用小推车推出来的”。很多红歌记录了当时沂蒙老区人民为战士们做军装、军鞋的情景</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">如《缝好衣裳送前方》、《做军鞋》、《纳鞋底》、《纺线歌》等。</span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt;"><span>    </span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">“红歌记录了一段历史</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">是革命前辈留给我们宝贵的财富</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">为了能让红歌流传下去</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">我一定会坚持到底。”秦丕山说</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">他们一家三口要做红歌的使者</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">,</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">要让红歌永远在沂蒙大地唱响。</span><span style="font-size:12pt;"> (</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">图片摄影</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">/</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:12pt;">杜昱葆</span><span style="font-size:12pt;">)</span><span style="font-size:12pt;"> </span></p>

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